Páncélvadászat a középkori Európában?

Páncélvadászat a középkori Európában?


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Valaki azt mondta nekem, hogy minden nemesség, amikor állatokat vadász, páncélban van. Továbbá meg vannak győződve arról, hogy a rendesen ruhavadászok ábrázolásai vagy nem nemesek, vagy páncélt viselnek szűk ruhájuk alatt.

Ezért szeretném megkérdezni a dolog igazságát. Ismer olyan eseteket, amikor magas rangú nemesség vadászott veszélyes állatokra, páncélban és páncél nélkül? Az írásbeli eseteket részesítik előnyben, mivel a művészet nagyon szabadon értelmezhető.

Megemlítem, hogy tisztában vagyok azzal, hogy vadászat történt páncéllal és anélkül, semmi sem akadályoz meg abban, hogy mindkét módszert gyakorolja. Úgy tűnik, hogy egyes kultúrák inkább a páncélos vadászatot részesítették előnyben.


A középkori művészetben ábrázolt vadászatok valószínűleg a nemesség tagjai, függetlenül attól, hogy páncélt viselnek -e vagy sem. A Fővárosi Művészeti Múzeum honlapja "ritkának" írja le a páncélok vadászatra való használatát.

Habár a fegyvereket és a páncélokat leggyakrabban a hadviseléssel hozták összefüggésbe, mindkettőt más környezetben használták, beleértve a vadászatot, a versenyeket és a felvonulási jelmezt… A vadászatban szinte minden típusú fegyvert használtak, beleértve az íjakat, számszeríjakat és lőfegyvereket is. különleges kardok és lándzsák. Ritka esetekben páncélt viseltek medve vagy vaddisznó vadászatához… Végül meg kell említeni a lovak és kutyák páncéljait is. Míg a lovakat a fenti esetek többségében páncélzattal lehetett védeni vagy díszíteni, a kutyák számára készült páncélzat ritka volt, és csak akkor használták, ha egyáltalán vadászatra és hadviselésre.


Középkori páncél

Armatura Medievale da Cavaliere teljes körű indossabile és funzionale. Armatura Medievale da Cavaliere comprende tutte le parti dell'armatura, che sono mostrati nell'immagine. Armatur.

Középkori lovagpáncél

Armatura Medievale da Cavaliere Armatura medievale - Europa occidentale dal 1400. Riproduzione di una Armatura Europea della prima metà del 1400. Armatura Medievale da Cavaliere comprende.

Középkori lovagpáncél - harcra kész

Riproduzione di Armatura Medievale da Combattimento del 1400, l'armatura comprende tutte le parti dell'armatura, che sono mostrati nell'immagine: 1- Elmo Klappvisor, elmo da combattimento b.

Középkori lovagpáncél - harcra kész

Questa armatura è prodotta in Italy, fedele all'antica tradizione artizianale degli armaioli italiani, che dal Medioevo è stata tramandata da generazione in generazione and giunta fino ad.

Templomos páncél

Quest'armatura Template Medievale da parata riprende and modelli del quindicesimo secolo richiamando la simbologia Templare, sia nell'elmo pentolare tipicamente usato dai crociati in Terra Santa sia.

Fali páncél középkori

Armatura Medievale da muro composta dalle seguenti parti: 1- Elmo bacinetto, elmo chiuso realizzato manualmente in acciaio al carbonio pienamente indossabile, in uso alla cavalleria pesa.

V. Károly páncél-arany kivitel-Marto

Carlo V armatura-finitura oro-MartoSebbene l'origine dell'armatura da combattimento risalga al periodo egizio, sviluppandosi con i Greci e i Romani, l'armatura medievale più conosciuta, formata da pia

Német gótikus páncél

Armatura Medievale Gotica teljes portatile és funzionale. Armatura Medioevale Gotica comprende tutte le parti dell'armatura, che sono mostrati nell'immagine. Armatura Medievale Gotica.

Funkcionális német gótikus páncél

Armatura Gotica teljes portatile és funzionale. Armatura Gotica összefoglalja a partit dell'armatura, che sono mostrati nell'immagine. Armatura Gotica komposzt dalle seguenti parti.

Középkori német páncél

Fegyverzet teljes körű indossabile és funzionale. L'armatura templare, riprende and modelli quattrocenteschi, richiamando la simbologia dei Templari, sia nell'elmo (Gran Elmo) generalmente utili.

Középkori német páncél

Armatura templare in acciaio scuro, pezzi bruniti, spresore compreso tra 1 and 1,2 mm.L'Armatura Templare a komposztban: - Elmo templare - Elmo incrociato templare che offre una protezione completeta della.

Templomos páncél

Riproduzione di un'armatura templare, riprende and modelli quattrocenteschi, richiamando la simbologia dei Templari, sia nell'elmo pentolare generalmente utilizzato dai Crociati in Terra Santa che nelle.

Századi spanyol páncél - marto

Armatura spagnola del XVI secolo, costruita sul modello di quelle di Carlo V e Filippo II and parte della collezione della Real Armeria di Madrid. L'armatura a realizzata in acciaio lucido, caratteri.

Páncél speciális gravírozás - marto

Anche se l'origine dell'armatura da Combattimento risale al periodo egizio, sviluppandosi con Greci e Romani, l'armatura medievale più conosciuta, formata da piastre di acciaio o di ferro, collegate t.

Középkori páncél olasz | Lovagpáncél

Armatura medievale composta da un Gran Bacinetto da campo aperto, con coppo ogivato a cresta alta. La forma della visiera è angolata in mezzeria e sporgente all'altezza delle fessure oculari, con 1.

Lovagpáncél

Armatura medievale composta da un elmetto da cavallo con coppo sferoide a cresta bassa. Ventaglia rialzata sul naso, agganciata a destra. Fessure di aerazione. Vista saliente sulla fronte, con fess.

Középkori páncél - bajnoki páncél (dekoratív)

Armatura da torneo con celata, in metallo rifinito decorato and con patina anticata con scudo di Riccardo I Cuor di Leone and lancia. * Finitura nera.* Decorazioni in oro.* Elmo templare c.

Deluxe Knights páncélruha

Armatura komposta da un Gran Bacinetto da campo aperto, con coppo ogivato a cresta alta. La forma della visiera è angolata in mezzeria e sporgente all'altezza delle fessure oculari, 15 fori di.

V. Károly páncél savas maratással - Marto

Anche se l'origine dell'armatura da Combattimento risale al periodo egizio, sviluppandosi con Greci e Romani, l'armatura medievale più conosciuta, formata da piastre di acciaio o di ferro, legate tra.

Domborított Carlos V. páncélruha - Marto

Anche se l'origine dell'armatura da Combattimento risale al periodo egizio, sviluppandosi con Greci e Romani, l'armatura medievale più conosciuta, formata da piastre di acciaio o di ferro, collegate t.

Középkori páncél Tomboló oroszlánpajzs

Anche se l'origine dell'armatura da Combattimento risale al periodo egizio, sviluppandosi con Greci e Romani, l'armatura medievale più conosciuta, formata da piastre di acciaio o di ferro, collegate t.

Versenypáncél lándzsával - Marto

Anche se l'origine dell'armatura da Combattimento risale al periodo egizio, sviluppandosi con Greci e Romani, l'armatura medievale più conosciuta, formata da piastre di acciaio o di ferro, legate tra.

Hordható középkori páncél

Armatura "all'italiana", caratterizzata da pezze dalla superficie liscia and tondeggiante and composta da un elmetto da cavallo con coppo sferoide a cresta bassa. Ventaglia rialzata sul naso, agganciat.

Középkori lovagpáncél

Armatura composta da un elmetto da cavallo, Presenta una visiera interact elaborata, con bordo superiore coronato e gabbia sporgente con elementi curvi. Elmi come questo non venivano utilizzati p.

Középkori páncél - Dekoratív páncél

Armatura medievale composta da un elmo a coppo alto con cresta e fessura oculare. Ventaglia munita di fessure verticali di aerazione, che danno luogo and a specie di ingabbiatura. Gorgiera da colle.

Középkori lovagpáncél, középkori olasz páncél

Armatura medievale con rifiniture in ottone, composta da un elmo dotato di fessure di aerazione con coppo sferoide a cresta bassa e ventaglia sul naso agganciata a destra. Vista saliente sulla front.

Középkori német páncél

Armatura ornamentale che riproduce un modello "alla tedesca" del XV-XVI secolo e per questo chiamata "teutonica", riconoscibile dalle pezze rifinite con angoli e guglie aguzze. l'armatura proposta.

Középkori páncél (antik) - Középkori páncél funkcionális harc

Armatura composta da un elmetto da cavallo a coppo alto con cresta e visiera sana con fessura oculare e tesa mobile e sporgente a riparo degli occhi. Ventaglia con rosetta di aerazione. Gorgiera da.

Középkori páncél Dauphin számára (sisak nélkül)

Armatura Medievale Dauphin (senza Elmo) - skarlát: G130.

Középkori páncél a bajnoksághoz

Armatura medievale da torneo appartenuta al conte Ulrich IX signore di Matsch (1435-1481), capitano generale del Tirolo e realizzata dai Negroli di Milano. Oggi conservata al castello di Churburg i.

Középkori páncéltörténet

Armatura medievale storica composta di celata alla veneziana a coppo alto, segnata da una costola mediana tra la linea frontale e la nuca lasciando il viso del tutto scoperto (apertura a U rovescio.

Középkori lovagpáncél, középkori páncél

Armatura medievale appartenuta a Federico I, principe elettore del Palatinato, detto il Vittorioso (1425-1476) e realizzata grazie alla bendradarbrazione tra vari armaioli milanesi (Faerno, Negroni, M.

Hordható középkori páncél

Armatura medievale modello "Federico V", komposta da un gran Bacinetto da campo aperto, con coppo ogivato a cresta alta. La forma della visiera è angolata in mezzeria e sporgente all'altezza delle.

Lovagpáncél - középkor

Armatura medievale composta di celata a coppo alto, con apertura facciale a T, contornata da una a barretta di rinforzo a season rettangolare. Petto con resta e rondella da bracciale allacciato medi.

Templomos páncél

Armatura Templare ornamentale a piastre Complete da parata riprende i modelli del quindicesimo secolo richiamando la simbologia Templare sia nell'elmo pentolare tipicamente usato dai crociati in Te.

Templomos páncél - Marto

Armatura templare - Armatura da parata templare, armatura decorativa, modelli quattrocenteschi della simbologia templare, elmo utilizzato dai crociati in Terra Santa, entrambi nella decorazione del pe.

Középkori páncél

Armatura composta da un elmetto da cavallo con coppo sferoide a cresta bassa. Ventaglia rialzata sul naso, agganciate. Fessure di aerazione. Gorgiera da colletto e guardagorgiera petto da piede a.

Középkori páncél

Armatura ornamentale che riproduce un tipico modello "all'italiana" del XV-XVI secolo riconoscibile dalle pezze con superficie liscia e tondeggiante. l'armatura proposta è caratterizzata da un elmo.

Armor mobil bár

Armatura ornamentale che riproduce un tipico modello "all'italiana" del XV-XVI secolo riconoscibile dalle pezze con superficie liscia e tondeggiante, allestita in maniera originale per fungere da m.

Középkori páncél

Armatura medievale ornamentale, composta da un elmo a coppo alto con cresta e fessura oculare. Ventaglia munita di fessure verticali di aerazione, che danno luogo and a specie di ingabbiatura. .

Asztali öltöny (sötét kivitel)-Miniatűr páncél

Armatura da tavolo in lamiera di ferro interamente modellata a mano, provizista di scudo e alabarda and di base in legno sagomato che funge da piedistallo. A végleges verzió. Altezza.

Asztali öltöny (könnyű kivitel)-Miniatűr páncél

Armatura da tavolo in lamiera di ferro interamente modellata a mano, provizista di scudo e alabarda and di base in legno sagomato che funge da piedistallo. A végleges chiara verzió. Altezz.

Középkori páncél

Armatura Medievale da Cavaliere Armatura medievale - Europa occidentale dal 1400. Riproduzione di una Armatura Europea della prima metà del 1400. Armatura Medievale da Cavaliere comprende tutte.

Funkcionális középkori páncél harcosok és harcosok testének védelmére. Középkori páncélunk kizárólag kézzel készülnek. Valósághű páncél és egyenlő az eredeti történettel, bármilyen páncélt (történelmi és fantasy páncélt) gyártunk, kérjük, küldje el a páncél rajzát, becsléseket a munkáról.

Középkori páncél, középkori lovagpáncél másolata. A középkori lovagpáncél által készített másolataink biztosan tetszeni fognak minden gyűjtőnek. Hű történelmi reprodukciók múzeum, helytörténeti, harci páncél.

A kivitelezés lehetővé teszi az acél vastagságának szabályozását, a vastagság elosztását, majd az acél vastagabb a harc alatt álló részekben, és vékonyabb a hátoldalán, mert nem túl nehéz a páncél. A méretek személyre szabottak

Hordható középkori páncélok széles választéka, a történelmi páncélok hű reprodukciói. Középkori páncélok, páncélok múzeumokhoz, történelmi épületekhez, páncélok, harcok, amelyek ellenállnak a sokkoknak, könnyű páncélzatnak, fantáziapáncélnak és az ügyfelek által szállított személyre szabott modelleknek. Sorozat középkori lovag páncél, a legcsodálatosabb Európában az évszázadok XIII, XV, XVI, XVII, sokszorosított sok eredeti őrzik a leghíresebb múzeumok.

Lovagpáncél. Még a lovakat is acéllemezek csapdájában fejlesztették ki, hogy javítsák a gyalogság lándzsáit és fegyvereit. A védelem mellett lenyűgözőbbé és megfélemlítőbbé tette a lovast. Kifinomult csapdákat használtak felvonulási páncélként is.


Nedves íj húrok tény vagy mítosz?

A Crecy -i csatában a krónikás, Jean de Vanette hirtelen felhőszakadást ír le, amely elárasztotta a genovai számszeríj húrjait. A nedves nedvesség következtében a genovai számszeríjak hatástalannak bizonyultak az angol hosszúhajókkal szemben, míg az angolok a csapadék idején eltávolították az övékét, W. Rose. A számszeríj nem könnyen eltávolítható. Josef Alm az Európai számszeríjak című könyvében valószínűtlennek tartja, hogy a nedves íjzsinór befolyásolja az eredményt, és lehet, hogy a genovaiak ürügyként magyarázták vereségüket. Payne-Gallweyt idézi, aki 24 órára merített, viaszjal átitatott íj, és úgy találta, hogy nem szívta fel a vizet, és tökéletesen használható.

Payne-Gallwey azonban kétféle vizsgálatot is megemlít, amelyeket a Crecy-nél használt számszeríjak laza húraival spekulál, és ezek a lazább húrok kevésbé hatékonyak lettek a tesztek során. Ugyanakkor azt feltételezi, hogy az angol hosszú íj nagyobb hatótávolsággal rendelkezett, és több nyílvesszőt tud lőni, mint a genovai. Ennek szövegét az alábbiakban közöljük

& quot; Bár sok kétség merült fel azzal kapcsolatban, hogy a genovai számszeríjak ezúttal nem cselekedtek, mivel a húrokat ellazította a nedves időjárás, lehetséges, hogy az incidens bekövetkezett, anélkül azonban, hogy bármilyen intézkedés befolyásolná a a csata.

A zsinórt a szokásosnál kevésbé lehetett volna hatékonyabbá tenni a heves eső, amely közvetlenül a csata előtt esett, és a ragyogó nap, amelyről ismert, hogy az esőt követte.

Ez a víz és hő kombinációja minden bizonnyal bizonyos mértékig ellazítaná a Crecy idején használt számszeríjak húrait, ha fedetlenek lennének, és túlságosan lazává tenné a húrokat ahhoz, hogy jó szolgálatot tegyen, amíg el nem távolítják őket az íjaktól. annak érdekében, hogy csavarással lerövidüljön, majd kicserélve mindez természetesen időt és törődést igényelne.

Emlékeztetni kell arra, hogy a Crecy -i genovai számszeríjak íjai kétségkívül összetettek voltak, fából, szarvból, ínből és ragasztóból, az acél íja pedig az utóbbi bevezetés.

Az összetett íj egyenes volt, ezért íjszalagja szükségszerűen meglehetősen laza állapotban volt rögzítve, ezért a húrt alkotó szál többé -kevésbé leválasztva hajlamos volt a nedvesség felszívására.

Másrészről, az acél számszeríj szorosan feszített zsinórját alkotó szálak szorosan összecsomagolva feküdtek, és ebben az esetben a madzagot belülről és kívülről mindig vastagon megkente méhviasz, hogy megőrizze. víz.

Hogy teszteljem a dolgot, egy acél számszeríjat süllyesztettem egy víztartályba egy napra és egy éjszakára, és nem tapasztaltam észrevehető elváltozást a húr feszességében. Én is vízbe tettem egy számszeríjat egy viszonylag laza madzaggal - például azokat, amelyeket szerintem a genovaiak használtak Crecyben -, és megállapítottam, hogy fél órás merítés után az íj hajlítására szolgáló kar alkalmazása okozta a húrt hogy egy centiméterrel lejjebb nyújtsa az állományt a megfelelő helyzeténél, feszességénél és ebből következő hatékonyságán, így elveszik. "

Az általános következtetés az, hogy bár a víznek lehetett hatása, a nagyobb számú íjász, a gyors íj gyorsabb lövése, a hosszabb íj hatótávolsága és az, hogy a számszeríjászok nem tudtak fedezni, azt jelentette, hogy a genovai csekély hatású nedves íjcsípésekkel győzték le.

A feszítés az a kifejezés, amelyet a számszeríj visszahúzására használnak. Általában reteszelő mechanizmust használtak, hogy a húrt a felhasználók kezei visszahúzhassák, és a csavart betölthessék, bár a 11. században le van írva, hogy a felhasználó hogyan feküdt a hátára úgy, hogy mindegyik íj karján és a húrt visszafelé húzva feléjük, a maró mentén, amelybe egy horony rövid vastag nyilakat tart.

Mivel némi időbe telt a számszeríj átfedése, hatékony volt, ha kemény burkolat volt, például egy épületben, máshol a pajzsokat, például a Pavise -t használták a felhasználó védelmére.

Ahogy az íjak megerősödtek, fejlettebb mechanizmusokat fejlesztettek ki a húrok visszahúzására. A kengyelek egy -két láb hosszúak lehetnek. Az egy lábas és két lábas kengyelt a C13-as évek végén a Tower of Londonban készítették, és 1301-ben I. Edward küldött Linlithgow-ba 3000 csavart két láb, 5000 egy lábas számszeríjért, és 1307-ben I. Edward 100 egy lábas és 40 két lábas kengyel számszeríjat rendelt, Gary G. Ball. 1321-ben Marino Sanuto, a Ventian, Torsello néven ismerteti a fegyverek listáját a tervezett keresztes hadjárathoz, és felsorolja az íjakat fa íjakkal, két láb kengyelekkel, M. Jahns, G. Kohler. Az 1344-es és 1366-os doveri leltárak egy és két lábas kengyel számszeríjat rögzítenek, Gary G. Ball.

A huszadik század második felében kifejlesztették a feszítő- vagy Sámsoni övet, amely egy övhöz rögzített kampóból áll, ahol a számszeríjat a horonnyal a felhasználó felé fordítják, egyik lábát a kengyelbe helyezik, a felhasználó lehajlik. vagy leereszkedik az egyik térdére, és a feszítőhorog karmait a zsinórra teszik, a felhasználó kiegyenesedik vagy feláll, testével húzza vissza a húrt. A feszítő öv népszerű volt a 14. és 15. században is.

Számszeríj átfogó horog a dán Soborg kastélyból, Nemzeti Múzeum, Koppenhága, Dánia.

A feszítőszalag és a karom adaptációja az volt, hogy húzóhúzót használtak, úgy, hogy a zsinór a feszítőszalagról a húzóra akasztott, majd a kormányrúd végére akasztott húzóra került. Az ilyen típusú számszeríjakat Turni Balistarii és Arbalests túrának hívták, és a 13. században említették. 1301 -ben I. Edward túrát kértem számszeríjra Linlithgow védelmében.

Nyulak számszeríjként, Alexander MS Bodl 264 romantikája, a flamand megvilágító Jehan de Grise és műhelye 1338-44 81v, Bodleian Library, Oxford, Anglia.

A 14. században a kecsketalp kart fa nyéllel és vaskarmokkal fejlesztették ki, és teljes egészében vasból készültek. Úgy működik, hogy beakasztja a húrt, és egy húzott karral húzza vissza a húrt. Egy vasrúdnak támasztották, amely áthaladt a kormányzáron a zár mögött.

Bal és középső: számszeríj kecsketalp, jobbra: átlózó horog, Koppenhágai Nemzeti Múzeum, Dánia.

Számszeríj kecsketalp C15, Museum Adleturm, Dortmund, Németország.

Számíjász kecske lábkarral, hogy átfedje az íjat, miközben a paviz fedele mögött van, Felső-Rajna Németország 1420-40 Zürich Zentralbibliothek ZBZ Rh hist 33b F 99v.

A szélvédő számszeríjakat 1239 -ben Acre -ben és 1269 -ben Piacenzában említették, a szélvédős számszeríjat, a „balista ad turnum” -ot a C13 -as évek végén, a Tower of Londonban készítették, Gary G. Ball. A 15. században csörlővel ellátott szélvédőt használtak Angliában és Franciaországban. Payne-Gallwey 1370-es dátumot ad az acél íj számszeríj és szélvédő bevezetésére.

A legerősebb átfogó eszköz a „német csörlő” vagy daruszin volt, fogaskerekekkel és fogasléccel. A cranequin legkorábbi példája 1373, Gary G. Ball.

Balra: Ausztria Bécsi fegyvertár számszeríj daru, Németország déli része C15.

Jobbra: Ausztria Bécs Armory számszeríj cranequin start C16.

A 14. században kampókkal és gyűrűkkel ellátott oxidból készült feszítőszalagokat említenek Frankfurt am Mainban, B. Rathgenben.

Balra: C14 számszeríj, St Florent Saint Sepulcre, Niederhaslach, Franciaország.

Jobbra: Számszeríj férfi Luttrell Zsoltárból, 1325-35, Brit Könyvtár, Anglia.

Átívelő horog horoggal Mary Queen Queen Psalter England 1310-20.

számszeríj rakodás, Alexander Romance, 1338-1344, Bodleian Library, Oxford, Anglia.

A számszeríjászok egyetlen karmos feszítőhorgot használnak, és lenyomják a lábát, hogy áthidalják a számszeríjat. Csehország nemzeti könyvtára CNM XXIII C124 Velislavova Biblia f118r 1325-1349.

Számszeríjászok 2 karmos feszítőhoroggal, 1275-99 Észak-frank, Morgan Library M969 Biblia f150r-2 prológokkal.

Számszeríjászok, az egyiken lábra állított, felemelt lábakkal, Wurttembergische Landesbibliothek WLB HB XIII 6 Weltchronik & amp; Marienleben 1300-50 Ausztria.

késő C15 -ös festmény a Crecy -i csata 1346 -ból, Royal Armories, Leeds, Anglia. Vegye figyelembe, hogy a páncélt, a fegyvereket és a számszeríjat ábrázolja a festéskor, nem pedig a csata idejét.

Ezeknek a fejlett átfogó mechanizmusoknak köszönhetően a számszeríj erőteljes, de lassú fegyverré vált. Payne-Gallwey leírja, hogy egy 15. századi ostrom íjat lő 3 láb 2 hüvelyk hosszúságú csavarral, 3 uncia súlyú és 14 hüvelyk hosszú, 460 yard távolságra. 60 méteren belül egy csavart küldött át egy 3/4 hüvelyk vastag üzletlapon. A hordó szélvédő segítségével 7 hüvelyk íj húzásához szükséges össztömeg 1200 font, azaz több mint fél tonna volt.

Számszeríj-bross található a Vencel téren, 2. fele C14-15, városi múzeum, Prága, Cseh.

II. Innocente pápa 1139 II. Nagyböjtben általános tanácsot hívott össze, amelyet a lateráni bazilikában tartottak és tartottak. Legalább ötszázan találkoztak Rómában. Ezek egyike keletről érkezett, az antióchiai pátriárka, de latin volt. A pápa elnökségével a tanács április 2 -án kezdődött, és úgy tűnik, április 17 -e előtt véget ért. Egy sor kanonok született az egyház reformjával kapcsolatban, ideértve a hajózás betiltását, valamint az íjászok és számszeríjak használatát a keresztények ellen.

"14. Ezenkívül teljes mértékben megtiltjuk azokat az utálatos kalandokat és versenyeket, amelyeken a lovagok megegyezés alapján gyűlnek össze, és gátlástalanul mutatják be testi bátorságukat és merészségüket, és amelyek gyakran emberi halált és lelki veszélyt eredményeznek. Ha bármelyikük meghal ezeken az alkalmakon, bár a bűnbánatot és a viaticumot nem kell megtagadni tőle, amikor kéri, meg kell vonni az egyházi temetéstől. "

"29. Anatéma szerint megtiltjuk, hogy a számszeríjászok és íjászok gyilkos, Istent gyűlölő művészetét ezentúl a keresztények és a katolikusok ellen alkalmazzák."

A számszeríj abban különbözik az íjtól, hogy képes megtartani a rugós íj potenciális energiáját mindaddig, amíg a ravasz ki nem oldja. A legkorábbi íjaknak bemetszést vágtak a kormányrúdba vagy az állományba, és a húrt visszahúzták, és benyomták a résbe. Az íj kilövése kioldja a húrt a nyílásból.

Betétek hornyokkal a számszeríj rögzítéséhez, Nemzeti Múzeum, Koppenhága, Dánia.

A fent bemutatott számszeríj állományok számszeríjra és gyermekbetétre vonatkoznak. Az íj a bal oldali bevágásban ült volna, és a kioldószerkezet egy csap volt, amely felfelé tolta a húrt.

Kidolgozottabb mechanizmust fejlesztettek ki egy anyával, amelyből egy szegmens volt kivágva a húr megtartására. Az anya fából, elefántcsontból, csontból vagy fémből készült. Az anya addig nem mozoghat, amíg a ravasz nem teszi lehetővé a forgatást, és a zsinór felengedése nem mozgatja előre a csavart.

számszeríj belső részei, anyák, Nemzeti Múzeum, Koppenhága, Dánia

Íjfüzér nélkül az íjkarok általában előre ívelnek, így a felfűzéskor az íj feszültség alatt áll.

A számszeríj íja eredetileg fából készült, és a 12. század közepétől Ázsia íjaiból másolt szarv íjakat használtak, fa maggal és vastag ínréteg hátával, amelyet halragasztóval kötöttek össze, általában hiányzott belőlük szarv a hasán, lásd Josef Alm. A természetes ragasztók száradási ideje 6-12 hónap, és hozzájárulhatnak ahhoz, hogy a kompozit íjak kétszeresei legyenek a fa íjak árának, Gary G. Ball.

1321-ben Marino Sanuto, a Torsello néven ismert ventília bemutatta a fegyverek listáját a tervezett keresztes hadjárathoz, és felsorolja a számszeríjat fa íjjal, két láb kengyelrel, és hogy a kompozit íjak jobbak voltak száraz területeken, mint a párás éghajlatú országokban, M. Jahns, G Kohler.

Gary G. Ball az acél íj első rögzített dátumát 1314-ként, Payne-Gallwey pedig 1370-es dátumként adja meg az acél íjak számszeríjban történő használatának kezdetét, de úgy tűnik, hogy más szerzők az acél íj későbbi időpontját részesítik előnyben, és úgy tűnik, csak a C15 elején váltak gyakoribbá.

1382 A német vadászati ​​rendelet utasítja a vadászat örökös mesterét, hogy szállítson el a császárnak látogatásakor egy számszeríjat tiszafa íjjal, egy juharfát, egy diót elefántcsontból és egy selyemzsinórt, G. Landau.

A 15. század elejétől kezdve fém íjakat kezdtek használni, de a fa és kompozit íjak továbbra is a használt íj típusok többségében voltak.

Egy német fa íj a Nemzeti Múzeumban, Koppenhága, Dánia

Számszeríj fa íjjal, C14-15, Nemzeti Múzeum, Zürich. Svájc

Fa íj számszeríj C14 végén, Stadt Múzeum, Köln, Németország

Összetett íj számszeríj, bálnacsonttal, C16, Stadt Múzeum, Köln, Németország

Acél íj számszeríj, Bayerisch Múzeum, München, Németország

Acél íj számszeríj, C16, Stadt Múzeum, Köln, Németország

A számszeríj csavarok formája különböző volt, különböző célokra. A 35 cm -es vagy rövidebb csavarok súlypontja az út egyharmada a tengely mentén a fejtől. Hosszabb csavarok az út egynegyede, W. Boeheim. A nyíl tengelyének hátsó részét gyakran ugyanolyan vastagságúvá tették, mint a Payne-Gallwey zsinórt. Nincs bizonyíték arra, hogy a csavaroknak olyan nyaka volt, mint a nyilaknak. A veszekedés kifejezés a négy oldal miatt merült fel, gyakran éles és tompa fejben.

Bayerisch Múzeum, München, Németország.

A háborús csavaroknak gyakran voltak foglalatai és rövid, nehéz, romboid keresztmetszetű hegyei a 14. században. Hosszú dart -szerű hegyeket is használtak. A legnehezebb számszeríj csavarok nem biztos, hogy repültek, a könnyebbeknél két -három egyenes, alkalmi spirális madártoll, pergamen, fa szelet vagy vékony rézlemez, W. Boeheim. Spirális járatokat hajtottak végre Frankfurt am Mainban 1349 -ben, B. Rathgen.

Számszeríj csavarok Prágából 1430-60, Bécsi fegyverzet, Ausztria

Parancsnokok számszeríj csavarja Prágából 1430-60, Bécsi fegyvertár, Ausztria.

Számszeríj csavarfejek a dániai Koppenhágai Nemzeti Múzeumból.

A csavarokat hordóban szállították, Észak -Németországban és Dániában egy hordó 800 csavart tartalmazott, Historisk Tidsskrift. Az I. Edward vezette Gasconok 1283 -ban 70 000 csavart hoztak magukkal 29 hordóban és 12 kosárban, Gary G. Ball.

Félhold hegyes nyilak készülnek hordóban történő szállításhoz. Alexander MS Bodl 264 romantikája, a flamand megvilágító Jehan de Grise és műhelye 1338-44 123v.

Félhold alakú csavarfejek

Payne-Gallwey a "félhold alakú fejű és többágú keresztcsíkos csavarokat" & quot;csavarok nagy madarak leöléséhez& quot. A csapdákhoz tervezett, nagyon széles fejű (15-27 cm széles) róka késcsavarok láthatók a svéd stockholmi Nordic Museumban. Josef Alm egy képet mutat a Tantzern vadászat kézikönyvéből, 1686 Koppenhágában, amely egy csapda számszeríjat mutat széles félhold fejjel. Úgy gondolják, hogy egy keskeny pont egyenesen áthaladhat egy madáron vagy kis állaton, míg a félhold alak elterjeszti az ütközést. A tompa csavarokat kis állatok és madarak számára is használták. A félhold is megakadályozhatja, hogy a csavar puha talajba temetkezzen és elveszzen. A félholdfej más elméletei a hajókon való rögzítésre vonatkoznak, bár a csavarokba adott pörgés ezt lehetetlenné teszi.

Vadászcsavarok a Nemzeti Múzeumból, Koppenhága, Dánia.

Tűzcsap, számszeríj csavar Prágából 1430-60, Bécsi fegyverzet, Ausztria.

A C13 közepén John Malemont, az Englands fő veszekedés -készítője évente 25 000 csavart készített, és várhatóan napi 100 csavart fog készíteni, amiért 7 1/2 d és 3d -t fizettek ki, Gary G. Ball. Csavarokra óriási mennyiségben volt szükség, 1277 -ben 150 000 számszeríjat szállítottak Dél -Walesbe, 1282 Bristol 14 000 számszeríjat szállított Rhuddlanba, 10,00 Chesterbe és 10 000 Camarthenbe, 4000 pedig a haditengerészeti flotta számára, 1283 angol hadsereg Anglesey -ben 170 000 csavar, Gary G. Ball.

Négyzet alakú csavarfejek

Payne-Gallweystates szerint ezeket a csavarokat páncélozott ellenfelek ellen használták & quot; Más csavaroknak négyzet alakú fejük volt, négy kis csúccsal, egy a fej mindkét sarkában, hogy ne nézzenek le a páncélról, hanem egyenes és ütő erejű csapást mérjenek a mellvédőt és sisakot viselő lovas férfiakra. az éles lövedék eltörhet, meghajolhat vagy félrefordulhat. & quot

Vadászcsavarok a Nemzeti Múzeumból, Koppenhága, Dánia.

Madárvadászat tompa csavarral, (a kézirat más részein éles csavarok láthatók éles fekete fejjel, szögekkel). Alexander MS Bodl 264 romantikája, a flamand megvilágító Jehan de Grise és műhelye 1338-44 95r.

Tompa csavar számszeríj vadászathoz, Manesse Codex 1305-1340.

Európa számos országa arra ösztönözte lakosságát, hogy lőjenek az íjászpályákra és a versenyekre. A popinjay, egy élénk színű madár vagy papagáj lövöldözése népszerű verseny volt, P. Sixl. A popinjay szó a francia Papagáj, papegai, Jim Bradbury szóból származik.

A Popinjay forgatása valószínűleg legalább a 13. századból származik. A porosz nagymester 1354-ben minden városban beállított egy 7-17 m magas fát vagy oszlopot, amelynek tetejére a popinjay került. Tompa csavarokat lőttek a popinjay -ra, és aki nyert, azt „lövőkirálynak” nevezik, és megkapta az ezüstlánc díját, amelyhez egy aranyozott papagáj volt csatolva, amelyet egy évig viselhetett a fesztiválokon, és ha megnyerte egymás után háromszor meg tudta tartani, TF Troels-Lund.

Stadt Múzeum, Köln, Németország

számszeríj tasak és veszekedések, St Florent Saint Sepulcre C14, Niederhaslach, Franciaország

A lárvák a számszeríj csavarjait tartják a kezelő számára, és általában bőrből készültek, egyeseket szőrmével ábrázolnak vagy léteznek a múzeumokban. Úgy tűnik, hogy a számszeríj csavarjait felfelé helyezték, bár számos kép mutatja, hogy a csavarok lefelé mutatnak. A remegés gyakran szélesebb a bázison, valószínűleg a csavarok és a járatok befogadására.

Számszeríj csavaros tasak C14-15, Nemzeti Múzeum, Zürich. Svájc

Crossbowman, Bibliotheque Municipal de Lyon BM PA 30 Cy commencent les grans croniques de la genealogie des roys de France f210v 1380 Franciaország

Balra: számszeríj csavaros rázó Ausztria C15, Bécsi fegyverzet, Ausztria

Jobbra: számszeríj csavaros remegés Németország déli részén 1500, Bécsi fegyvertár, Ausztria

A vadkanvadászatban használt számszeríjak Gaston Phoebus A vadászat könyve 1405 Bibliotheque Nationale France

Huszita harcosok számszeríjjal és csíkkal, C15, prágai városi múzeum, cseh

The Genoese gained a reputation for crossbowmen and their skills which developed from the use of the crossbow in naval warfare on the Italian galleys. Genoese crossbowmen captured by the Milanese had one eye put out and one hand cut off, Gary G. Ball. The Genoese were allies of France and crossbowmenn were recruited and fought accross Europe, and as early as 1099 were said to have been at the siege of Jerusalem, Payne-Gallwey.

The crossbowmen were hired and paid by the Republic of Genoa and had to swear an alleigence to them. The Genoese crossbowmen were always under the control of the Republic of Genoa and could not be under an independant flag and so were not strictly mercenaries and were sometimes sent to fight for allies without receiving a fee, but the Republic of Genoa bearing the costs. When the crossbowmen were employed, they had strict contracts that would be adhered to, but also those that they employed had strict terms that dictated their sponser should pay for anyone who refused to do his job or deserted. Each Genoese crossbowmen was also equipped in addition to their crossbow and 20 bolts, with a helm, body armour, mail armour, a dagger, and a Pavise held by their squire for defence. The crossbow bolts were made by Both bullets were a guild of craftsmen called quarellari.

At the naval battle of Sluys in 1340, the French were said to have had 20,000 Genoese crossbowmen, but were defeated by the Enlish longbows of Edward III.

Crossbowman on board ship, Luttrell Psalter, 1325-35, British Library, England

Siege of Acre shows crossbowmen and Pavise, from Chroniques de France ou de St. Denis end C14

At the battle of Crecy in 1346, the Genoese led by Ottone Doria, is given variously as 2-6,000, but they lacked their protective shields which were in the baggage train that was still on route. The pavesarii held shields, and there were around three crossbowmen to each pavesarii, so they would probably take turns to shoot from behind the shields, whilst being protected when spanning the crossbow, David Nicolle. Lacking this protective cover they were outshot by the English longbowmen of Edward III. Payne-Gallwey speculates that the Genoese crossbows did not have the range of the English longbows, regardless of the impact of the rain on the crossbow strings, and took a heavy toll from the greater rate that arrows could be shot. The Genoese crossbowmen retreated, and were run down by the advancing French cavalry. Ottone Doria was killed but it is unknown if he died from an English arrow or a French knight.

Whilst spanning the crossbow the crossbowmen was vulnerabe to return missiles, and so often a shields or Pavise was used. This were large enough for the crossbowmen to shelter behind, then to emerge from behind to shoot. As well as being used in large battles, they also allowed crossbowmen to attempt to approach fortifications that were under siege.

In the 15th Century the pavise was built with a central ridge that stengthened the whole shield.

A 'Storm Shield' thought to be from Southern Germany, from National Museum, Copenhagen Denmark.

A 'Storm Shield' showing a hole through which bolts could be shot, from National Museum, Copenhagen Denmark.

A 'Storm Shield' allowing viewing, from National Museum, Copenhagen Denmark.

A 'Storm Shield' with two metal spikes allowing it to be planted into the ground, from National Museum, Copenhagen Denmark.


Medieval Falconry and Hawking

Középkori Falconry and Hawking took advantage of trained birds of prey to hunt small wild game such as squirrels and rabbits, and other birds.

A falconer would fly a falcon, an Austringer, a hawk (Accipiter), or an eagle (Aquila).

Falconry became a regulated, revered, and popular sport and status symbol among the nobles and the clergy of medieval Europe. In some religious orders, falcons were even taken into religious services.

Falcons were so highly valued that they were worth több than their weight in gold.

History of Falconry

It’s believed that falconry’s art may have begun in Mezopotámia in approximately 2,000 BC. Val vel cases also found in northern Altai, western Mongolia (for Mongol tribes, the falcon was a symbolic bird). Figures of a falconer on horseback were also described on Kyrgyz’s rocks in Central Asia dating back to the 7th century AD.

Falconry was introduced to Europe probably around AD 400 when the Huns and Alans invaded from the east. It’s believed that Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (King of Sicily, Germany, and the Roman Empire) obtained firsthand knowledge of Arabic falconry when he got a copy of the Arabic author Moamyn‘s manual on falconry and had it translated into Latin by Theodore of Antioch. Moamyn’s work is largely based on the Kitāb al-ṭuyūr (كتاب الطيور), the Book of Birds or Book of flight cycles (patterns) of Birds), a more extensive work by al-Ghiṭrīf ibn Qudāmah al-Ghassānī from the early ninth century.

King Frederick II wrote what is now widely accepted as the first comprehensive book of falconry, the De arte venandi cum avibus (“The Art of Hunting with Birds”). The treaty took him over thirty years to complete and is considered one of the first scientific works on birds’ anatomy and a founding book of ornithology.

Falconry soon became a popular sport and status symbol among medieval Europe’s nobles, as it required a commitment of time, money, and space.

Illuminated page from Latin translation of Moamin's treatise on falconry: "De scientia venandi per aves, etc. "copy from Yale Beinecke Library. A Wikimedia Commons jóvoltából.

Medieval Wall

Medieval weapory can be divided into attacking and defensive, and also into cold weapons and firearms. Most popular were cold weapons, although by the end of this period the use of firearms increases, and they subsequently supersede the cold weapons.

By the downfall of the Roman Empire, so vanished its disciplined military organization, which was replaced in Europe by immigrant armies. Their military campaigns were participated by entire nations, which included all the layers of society. After settling in their newly conquered lands, they gradually lose their belligerence, turning more to a sedentary lifestyle, mainly agriculture. Warfare remains only among the narrow circle of nobility, future knights. Infantry loses its significance, and the primary focus is passed onto the knight’s horsemen. They were mostly armed with cold weapons (spear, sword, battle axe…), and were protected by armour. Infantry was used as a backup and mainly armed with bows. Throughout the entire Middle Ages the cavalry was predominant, only during the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) the infantry, armed with bows and arrows, becomes increasingly significant, and sometime later the Swiss footmen equipped with close combat weapons (spears, halberds) will have become extremely efficient soldiers. 1

The territories of Europe did not use the same weaponry. The Slavs were in shortage of iron, so they preferred ranged weapons. That is why Charlemagne banned selling weapons to Slavs and Avars. Later, other bans are introduced on a social level as well. Azaz. Frederick I Barbarossa (cca. 1122-1190) banned carrying or possession of weapons (spear or sword) to peasants. Travelling merchants were allowed to carry weapons, in order to defend themselves from robbers, but they were not allowed to carry them “in a knightly manner “, on their body, only attached to the saddle or inside the wagon. It was, in any way, harder for the lower classes to get a hold of weapons since they were costly. For example, it is a known fact that in Charlemagne’s time, a sword cost seven cows, and a spear two. 2

Cold weapons

The most common and well known weapon amongst the warriors of the Middle Ages were swords. 3 Swords of the noblemen were especially richly decorated and were also often attributed with supernatural powers. Though swords of other warriors were slightly more modest, they display excellent craftsmanship nevertheless. By a single stroke, they could pierce through metal, but also inflict a deadly wound to the enemy. 4

Apart from swords, another important weapon were sabres. This weapon originates from the East, from the equestrian tribes of middle Asia. They were later adopted by the Persians, as well as nations of India and Japan. They were brought to Europe during the Migration and were used by the Huns, Avars and Hungarians. However, with a gradual dominance of the sword as a primary medieval weapon, sabre vanishes from general use. It will reemerge in Europe during the Turkish invasion of this area. Later, many nations that were in contact with the Turks will readopt the sabre, i.e. the Polish will make it their national weapon (“karabela “). Its widespread use is also witnessed by the Hussar army that was assembled of defectors who were skilled in Turkish type of warfare, by the Hungarian king Mattias Corvinus in 1474 this light cavalry’s primary weapon was sabre. 5

Knives were a shorter type of weapon, consisting of a handle and a single blade. Since they were cheaper to make, they were most commonly used by peasants. Nowadays, it is hard to differentiate which of them were used as a weapon, or in hunting and everyday household activities.

Somewhat larger than knives were daggers. They were used for quick self-defence, by inflicting stab wounds, and also for putting the wounded out of misery. They were sometimes used in parallel with a sword, in a way that a warrior would hold a sword in one hand, and a dagger in the other. Due to its size, it could have easily been hidden in garments or various objects, which made it a very dangerous weapon. Even though they vanish from use in the early Middle Ages, they reappear throughout entire Europe during the 12th and 13th century. They became useful once more due to the evolution of heavy knights’ armours, which were tough to pierce with a sword or some larger weapon. Thin dagger blades were ideal for this purpose thus the knights use them increasingly, holding the sword in one hand, and the dagger in the other. 7

Both footmen and horsemen used spears, a weapon that consisted of a long pole on top of which was a blade with two, three or four edges. Spears had been used since prehistory, with no major changes in design. During the Middle Ages, spears were used by all European nations, especially Germanic and Norman tribes. 8

Imposing, but rarely used medieval weapons were battle axes. They had been used since Prehistory, and they consisted of a handle and a blade which was shaped either as a parallelogram, a crescent moon or a fan. In medieval Europe, they were mostly used by the Franks (francisca) and the Vikings. However, it should be mentioned that, even though legends often display axes as a most common weapon used by Vikings, this was, in fact, a much more modest weapon. They were mostly used by warriors who could not afford a sword. Most of the preserved battle axes, due to their modesty, cannot be distinguished from the ones that were used by lumberjacks. 9 Axe was used by knights in late Middle Ages, and some time later it will have been used, once again, by infantry. 10

Similar to axes were alabárdok, which consisted of a long pole (1.80 – 2.40 m), on top of which there was a spear, an axe or a beak (not until the 16th century). Footmen used them for fighting against armoured knights. Halberds were first used by the Swiss soldiers-footmen fighting against armoured cavalry in the battle at Morgarten in 1315. This weapon was multi-functional since the spear was used for hitting or piercing the horseman, the axe was used for inflicting cut wounds, and the beak for unhorsing the horseman. It had a distinctive form in each country it was used in thus we can distinguish German, Swiss, Italian and Czech halberd. At the beginning of the 15th century, the halberd was pulled to the centre of the military formation and was replaced entirely by the spear in the next century. Nowadays, it is used only by the papal guard in the Vatican. 11

Although having appeared in as early as Prehistory, mace és morning star were characteristical medieval weapons. A mace consists of a short handle and a head split into flanges. Flanges were narrow and long in the 14th and 15th century, thus having been named “gothic “maces. Later, they became more round and triangular, and by the number of flanges, we can distinguish six-flanged, ten-flanged, twelve-flanged etc. By shape, it is similar to the morning star, the difference being that the morning star had a full bronze or iron head covered in spikes or pyramidal bulges. For their decorativity, both mace and morning star became symbols of dignity and honour in the Middle Ages, worn by civilians (town’s judges and noblemen), as well as military commanders. 12

Range weapons

Though they were often considered primitive weapon, slings were also used in warfare. They had been used since prehistory, and they were an extremely deadly weapon when used by skilled warriors. During the 15th century, there were entire mercenary fleets armed with slings. Such a fleet, for example, was a part of an army raised by Ivan Kapistran in 1456 for the defence of Belgrade. A large version of the sling was katapult. It was mostly used during the siege. They were made of wood, and they were used for casting rocks. 13

During the Middle Ages, nevertheless, the most used weapons were íjak, which were one of the most efficient range weapons. They were made of wood (larch, ash, elm, maple, birch …), horn (ox, buffalo, goat, antelope), cane (bamboo) or metal (copper, bronze, steel). The tendon was made out of leather, entrails, vegetable fibres, horse hair or silk. Since they were sensitive to humidity, the archers wore spare tendons. Arrows consisted of a pointy top (flint, bone, iron, copper, hardwood), a shaft made of light wood and fletchings made of feathers. An archer carried 24 to 50 arrows in his sac. 14

Bows had been used since the Antique (Egypt, Assyria, Babylon), and they first appeared in Europe in Charlemagne’s army in the 8th century. The Hungarian and Tartarian cavalry particularly used bows and the most famous for this skill were the English and the Welsh, who were the most wanted bowmen in the period from the 13th until the 15th century. 15 Armoured knights did not use bows specially trained warrior bowmen were hired in battles. Apart from being trained in using a bow from childhood, bowmen also had to be trained in handling other sorts of weapons, which they would use in a battle after they have run out of arrows. A good bowman was able to fire twelve arrows per minute and hit a target in a range of 225 metres. English bowmen that were captivated by the French were punished severely. Thumbs on both of their hands were amputated, as well as index and middle finger on their right hand. Although it was not a primary weapon in Europe, some nations used bows as weapons almost exclusively. For example, Avars, Bulgarians, Huns, Hungarians and Mongols used them as their primary weapons. They circled the enemy riding fast horses, firing arrows at them. 16 From the 16th century onward, bows seized to be used, since they were replaced by firearms. 17

An advanced version of bow was nyílpuska, which is first used in the 11th century by the Normans, and later spread throughout the rest of Europe. 18 It was mainly a weapon used by footmen, although it was used by the cavalry as well. It was considered a hazardous weapon that brings certain death. A fact is that in 15th-century crossbow arrows pierced through helmets at a distance of 300 steps, and through a chest armour at 100 up to 125 steps. It is interesting that it had a larger range than the firearms of the same period. Its use was often banned, however, the bans did not hold, since it was used until the 17th century when more advanced firearms replace it. 19

Defensive weapons

In battles, as well as in individual knights’ conflicts, a warrior’s protection was critical. At the beginning, protection was provided by an outfit made out of leather (which will have been used throughout the entire Middle Ages by the lower cast) later, along with the evolution of blacksmith skills, warriors started to use metal protectors, first for some body parts, and later entire armours.

Apart from armours, protection was primarily contributed by shields, which had been used since Prehistory. They came in many sizes and shapes, and they were usually larger when used by infantry, while the cavalry used shields of smaller proportions. Shields seized to be used as a defensive weapon by the end of the 17th century but continued to be produced as decorative objects. 20

Helmets were also used since the earliest of times, and they were invented with the purpose to protect the nape and the vertex with their rear part, and the forehead, cheeks and ears with their front part. In 14th century, this shape is modified in a way that the cut around the eyes is more emphasized (barbuta, bacinet, beckenhaube). They could also have a moving part for the protection of the face – a visor. During the Middle Ages helmets were designed in different forms, and they were most often shaped like a hat, a bowl or a sphere. 21

For the protection of the body, mailed vests and armours were made. A mailed vest comes from the East, and it was brought to Europe through Byzantium in the 6th century. It was made of interwoven iron rings, and it was designed in the shape of a long-sleeved vest that descended to the knees. Later, metal plates were applied additionally on the chest, in order to make it stronger. Metal armour was allowed to be worn only by noblemen, which led to a competition among them in acquiring the most expensive and handsome specimen. It was designed as a stylistic whole, and it consisted of a helmet, a collar, straps, upper arm, elbow, forearm, and gloves. On joints of individual parts, there were movable plates which allowed for easier mobility. Apart from these battle armours, there were also exclusive tournament armors and specially decorated armours for solemn occasions. Medieval armours are divided into two primary types: Gothic and Maximillian. During the 16th century, they become slightly obsolete, due to the broader use of firearms. 22

Firearms

There is a great change in medieval armament and warfare with the appearance of firearms. It was preceded by the discovery of gunpowder, which dates back much earlier in history. An Indian document from 5th century BC contains a recipe for making an explosive compound. Apart from the Indians, the Chinese and the Arabs also knew gunpowder. It was the Arabs that first used small wooden hand mortars in the siege of the Spanish city of Alora in 712. 23 However, the Arabian wooden thrower from 12th century called madfaa, which fired nut-sized projectiles, is considered an immediate predecessor of firearms. 24

It is not known precisely when the Europeans began using gunpowder, but they were familiar with it during the 13th century. We find the first records of formulas in the works of Marco Graecus „Liber Ignium“, and they were also familiar to Albertus Magnus (1193-1280) and Roger Bacon (1215-1294). The Germans attribute the invention of gunpowder to Berthold Schwartz around 1320. 25

At the beginning, casting cold weapons (such as catapults) were much more efficient than firearms. Because of it, as well as religious fanaticism (firearms were considered the Devil’s invention), many countries refused to use it in their armament. 26

Első cannons were used in the 14th century in the sieges of cities (Cividale, 1338), but they did not pose any serious threat at the time. Their purpose was mainly to scare since they produced much noise. The greater danger was for whoever loaded the barrel, since it often used to explode, thus injuring the person standing next to it. First specialized gun foundries were established in Augsburg in 1370, Venice in 1376, and in Dubrovnik in 1411. By the beginning of the 15th century, they were producing two types of cannons, the ones that cast stone balls, and the ones that cast lead and iron balls. The following data also tells of little strength of 15th-century cannons: their range was, at the time, 200 to 400 meters, and by the end of the century it went up to 600 meters, and the speed of shooting was only one ball per hour. Later, the artillery will have been improved, and finally, become a special branch. 27

Besides the cannons, along with the gunpowder, handheld firearms developed as well. During the 15th and 16th century, pipes with hooks on them were used, which represented transitional form from cannons to rifles. This weapon was called arquebus (hakenbüchse). Arquebuses were heavy bastion rifles, which had longer or shorter barrels, and were used for fortification defence and for signalling in case of the enemy approach. They were fired using a burning wick that was put against the back of the barrel. Matchlocks appeared around 1500, representing the first type of barrels planted in wood. At the side, there was a hook with a small head into which the wick was drawn, thus firing up the gunpowder charge inside the barrel. However, these guns had a series of flaws, for example, they could not be used in rainy weather, also they were an easy target for the enemy at night while lighting up the wick, and only footmen, and not cavalry, were able to use them. Nevertheless, around the beginning of the 16th century, there is an improved way of firing – by a wheel mechanism, and later by a flint. Pistols were developed in parallel with rifles, following their function mechanism. At first, they fired using a wick, and later, pistols running on the wheels and flint mechanisms were gradually introduced. 28

With the new era, new types of warfare are introduced, the knighthood seizes to exist, and hired warriors battle in the battlefield. Although cold weapons remained in use, they were gradually replaced by firearms, which were over time further improved. More extensive use of firearms is accompanied by a gradual discontinuance of the use of metal armour, which lost its purpose.

Related articles:

  • Friedrich I Barbarossa (around 1122-1190) banned the peasants from carrying or possession of weapons (spear or sword). He permitted the carrying of a sword to traveling merchants for the purpose of defense against the robbers, but they were not allowed to carry it in a „knightly manner“, on their body, but only on the saddle or inside the wagon.
  • Weapons were extremely expensive in the Middle Ages. Azaz. in Charlemagne’s time, a sword cost up to seven cows, and a spear two.
  • The invention of gunpowder dates back a long time, already in 5th century BC there was an Indian document that contained a recipe for an explosive compound.
  • Tony ALLAN, Vikinzi, Velike civilizacije, život, mit i umjetnost, Liber Novus d.o.o., Zagreb, 2008
  • Tomislav ARALICA, Noževi i bodeži na tlu Hrvatske od prapovijesti do 1945. godine, Gradski muzej Sisak, Sisak, 2008
  • Marilynne LANNG, Castles, A David & Charles Book, UK, 2005
  • Marija ŠERCER, Oružje u prošlosti, Povijesni muzej Hrvatske, Zagreb, 1980
  • Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ed.), Vojna enciklopedija, Redakcija vojne enciklopedije, Beograd, 1960
    – volume 3, – halberd [Đurđica PETROVIĆ]
    – volume 3, – cold weapon [Dragoslav PILETIĆ]
    – volume 5, – bow and arrow [Vidak VUJNOVIĆ]
    – volume 10, – firearms [Vidak VUJNOVIĆ]
  • 1 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ed.), Vojna enciklopedija, volume 3, Redakcija vojne enciklopedije, Beograd, 1960, – cold weapons [Dragoslav PILETIĆ], 603-604
  • 2 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ur.) (note 1), 604
  • 3 We shall further discuss swords in a separate article.
  • 4 Marilynne LANNG, Castles, A David & Charles Book, UK, 2005, 146
  • 5 Marija ŠERCER, Oružje u prošlosti, Povijesni muzej Hrvatske, Zagreb, 1980, 15-16
  • 6 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 14-15
  • 7 Tomislav ARALICA, Noževi i bodeži na tlu Hrvatske od prapovijesti do 1945. godine, Gradski muzej Sisak, Sisak, 2008, 11
  • 8 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 9-10
  • 9 Tony ALLAN, Vikinzi, Velike civilizacije, život, mit i umjetnost, Liber Novus d.o.o., Zagreb, 2008, 128
  • 10 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 11
  • 11 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ed.), Vojna enciklopedija, volume 3, Redakcija vojne enciklopedije, Beograd, 1960, – halberd [Đurđica PETROVIĆ], 535
  • 12 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 12
  • 13 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 20
  • 14 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ed.), Vojna enciklopedija, volume 5, Redakcija vojne enciklopedije, Beograd, 1960, – bow and arrow [Vidak VUJNOVIĆ], 267
  • 15 Marilynne LANNG (note 4), 146
  • 16 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ed.) (note 14), 268
  • 17 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 21
  • 18 The opinions on its origin differ. One group of explorers claims Far East as its origin, and it was supposedly used by Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans, while others consider that the crossbow was expressly a Western European weapon, unknown to the East. (See: Marija ŠERCER, note 5, 21)
  • 19 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 21
  • 20 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 18
  • 21 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 18-19
  • 22 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 20
  • 23 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 22
  • 24 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ed.), Vojna enciklopedija, volume 10, Redakcija vojne enciklopedije, Beograd, 1960, – lőfegyverek [Vidak VUJNOVIĆ], 384
  • 25 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 22
  • 26 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ur.) (note 24), 384
  • 27 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 22-23
  • 28 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 24-27

Hozzászólások

I’m not that much of a online reader to be honest but your blogs really nice, keep it
up! I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back later
tovább. Nagyon köszönöm

mykaela Nov 12, 2014 u 6:00 PM

Amberbock Mike Nov 27, 2014 u 8:28 AM

Mykaela, history is too long to read. This post is well researched and informative. If it is too long for you to read, then you probably are not capable of understanding it. I do, and I appreciate the work required for this article.

mona May 22, 2015 u 2:41 PM

very useful …………tell us to many things about medieval india…………

Köszönöm. Well researched and thought out blog. Not too long at all- armed with informative facts.

Lydia Sep 09, 2017 u 5:00 AM

THIS HELPED ME SOO MUCH! I was frantically searching the internet, looking for medieval weapon information, and none of the stuff I found was helpful, then I came across this, and I am so relieved! This has all the information I need! Nagyon szépen köszönöm.

Jacob Batton Apr 09, 2018 u 11:41 PM

Dreyvan Feb 26, 2019 u 3:38 AM

Thanks for the information, but please make it easier to find and relate.


Medieval Crossbows and Accessories

As a weapon, the medieval crossbow was regarded with great respect and one of short range deadliness in the hands of almost anyone. As the long bow required extensive training and strength, most users were trained nearly from birth, as it was an excellent choice for longer range targets. The crossbow was easy to learn and given in great numbers to the average soldier as a solution for short range targets. It was the forerunner of short range attack weapons which gave way eventually to the effectiveness of gun powder arms. Silent, deadly and efficient, it remains today a choice for the sportsman and in other situations where silence is needed to obtain the target.
Its history is found in the fifth century B.C. in China with numerous archaeological digs revealing brass bolts and brass trigger mechanisms and writings as early as fourth century B.C. discussing the use of repeating crossbow mechanisms and descriptions of their use in battle. These historical documents showed that crossbow strategy was similar to what was developed later for the musket and was even used while mounted on horses with cavalry formations.

In the meantime, the Greeks began to develop a slightly different style of crossbow around the same time period. They used torsion or twisted movement in their early models although this was eventually found only in their catapults, an ingenious twist, literally, that produced much more power. These earlier, smaller versions required a prop to use and were actually made with a concave design that allowed the user to use core body strength to operate it by pressing forward with his abdomen . These eventually gave way to being mounted and in place on walls, probably due to the internal injuries and complaints from the users caused by consistent use of them, and then the design moved into their catapults.

The Romans had hand held mechanical weapons that were a combination of both the Asian and Greek influence. This was typical of the Romans as they were great copiers of both weapons and armor of their enemies and took the best ideas from both of these cultures to produce their own. Written history emerges around the fourth century B.C. of their defeat by the hands of the Chinese who were able to penetrate their body armor with their hand held catapults, which was around the time these were put to use in the Roman armies.
By the Fifth century AD, there are records of them in use in Scotland by the Picts as hunting weapons. The styles of medieval crossbows that we now see were used by European armies through the 1500’s. Both mounted and on foot, the crossbowmen were mixed in with the rest of the troops and were a popular choice of weapon until the enemy bore down on you requiring a quick transfer to short sword, knife or pole axe. The beauty of this strategy made good offensive sense and the fact that even the peasants, with very little training, could be armed with a crossbow easily made the weapon a huge success. Pole axe and crossbow was the typical peasant weaponry which worked in the better trained armies as well.

The crossbow encouraged the development of mail armor or chainmail under regular plate armor which salvaged the day for many a soldier under the brutal and effective onslaught of crossbowmen. It literally changed battlefield strategy when it first appeared as completely as the introduction of short range gun powder weapons did. A very valuable asset to any medieval soldier, the medieval crossbow, found in several designs throughout Medieval times, was the weapon that produced fear in its enemies and was the choice of the silent assassin and snipers that could quickly ambush and overtake much larger armies than themselves.
It can be found in the history of every continent in a variety of cultures from ancient times and continues today as a respected hunting weapon. The medieval crossbow was only one stop in a very, very long road through man’s story of hunting and warfare but an instrument of such cunning design that it still intrigues us today.

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Hozzászólások

The writer makes light of the impact of the longbow, suggestion that crossbows were more deadly. At short range the crossbow had good hitting power, but the bolt lost impetus quite quickly and was of little use at longer distances, The shafts from a longbow were effective throughout its whole range, which was between 200 and 300 yards. Different types of arrowhead were developed which dealt well with different types of armour. However complete penetration was not always necessary as blunt trauma could kill, or at least take a knight off his feet - many were unable to rise and suffocated in the mud, The longbow could also be used rapidly, the crossbowman needed a pavise projection while he laboriously spanned the bow for the next shot. Experiments have proved the penetration capabilities of the longbow, while it is known that many longbowmen were capable of sending an arrow into the small slits between the plates of armour, or into a visor.


Angol történelmi szépirodalmi szerzők

The Knight in shining armour conjures up one of the most evocative images of the medieval period.

Between the 11th and 17th century the nobility made their mark on Europe. In life, they ruled the population, its economics, life style, fashions, and history. Great books were written for the wealthy, large houses and castles built, sonnets written and ballads sung. They displayed their wealth and strength, which often meant the male’s role in battle and his ability to fight and protect his land and himself.

If we look at the tapestry that made 1066 a year that changed the history of England, we will see a collection of images that represent men at arms dressed in mail coats with conical helmets and long kite shaped shields. Some have mail leggings whilst many have no armour at all, but those stylised images show how men dressed for war in the 11th century. See fig A

Mail changed little throughout the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth century with the exception of minor details. The shape of the helmet changed from the typical Norman conical shape to the rounded skullcap and then to the cylindrical shaped helm. Metal knee protection appeared in the early thirteenth century and the shield decreased in size but overall the main form of defence remained mail. See fig B and C

In the early fourteenth century, something happened that would start an arms race that lasted three hundred years. The capability of producing large quantities of iron and steel. Moreover, it is from this period that the armourer begins to develop the methods of plate armour production. See fig D

The modern fighting soldier’s idea of warfare has no bearing on the medieval knight’s ideal. Warfare had its political and social reasons just as today, but the social elite could use warfare as an income and a method of elevating their status. The capture and ransoming of a wealthy knight might ensure he survived a battle. Thus, the ability to show ones wealth in battle became important.

The knight not only needed armour as a form of physical protection but also needed it to convey his wealth and standing. Thus, the development of armour changed from a purely defensive matter and moved into the realm of visual display. The knight became a deadly peacock, using the bright colours of heraldry to distinguish each other on the battlefield and in tournament.

Heraldry had arisen in the 11th century with simple patterns, designs and pictures, and over a five hundred year period would developed into a complex method of recognising individuals and families. The main areas on a knight that displayed heraldic arms were the shield, the surcoat and the crest. In most circumstances the crest is the only surviving clue to the heraldic design of an individual that can be found on an effigy, this being part of the headrest. In some cases, the shield and jupon have a coat-of-arms carved into them, some even retaining original colours.

During the late 13th c. plate protection was added to mail armour, arm and leg protection being strapped onto mail. The surcoat was shortened at the front becoming the Cyclas. The knight wore a padded aketon underneath his mail coat or Haubergeon above this, a coat of plates may have been worn. See figure E.

By the mid 14thc plate protection had superseded mail on the arms. On legs plate was used but often took the form of studded leather and metal splints. The surcoat had been replaced by the much shorter and tighter jupon. See figure F. A horizontal belt with plaquarts plus gilded edging was now added to the harness and the bascinet and aventail became universally used throughout Europe.

The early 15thc saw the development of the great bascinet with its gorget and the first full plate suits of armour appear. The average thickness of the steel used was around 1.5 millimetres but certain areas such as the breastplate or helmet could be made thicker. See figure G.

By the late 15thc the intricate gothic styles in German armour increases. See figure H. but in England, the plainer Italian style is preferred. However, the sallet eventually took over from the Great bascinet.

During the early Tudor period Italian style armour with plain surfaces. See figure I. appears on many effigies In reality the use of heavily fluted armour (Later to be called Maximilian) was used throughout Europe. The development of the close-helmet that hid the head completely meant that the effigy maker often replaced the traditional helm as headrest with this form of helmet.

The Elizabethan period saw the development of increased articulated lames, heat-treated coloured metal and elaborate decoration. The Joust became the showpiece for armour with knights displaying their wealth through highly decorated garnitures, designed to have interchanging parts for different forms of tournament. Added pieces some being up to three millimetres thick, were used to reinforce original suits. See figure J.

During the 17th century the development of heavier thicker plates to stop the round shot from guns meant that armour became utilitarian and plain. See figure K. The idea of knighthood did not disappear and elaborate harnesses that had no place on the battlefield were produced for the new officer class See figure L.

A könyvemben, The History of Armour 1100-1700 published by Crowood Press, I attempt to give an account of the changes of armour. Looking at details that make a suit of armour, from the methods of construction to the way it was worn and the way fashion dictated changes in armour design. It is hoped that this book will not only enlighten students of arms and armour but also give an insight to the art of the effigy maker, showing the skills they possessed through reproducing the armour and weaponry of their period in wood, stone and metal.

I trained in graphic communication specializing in illustration. Afterwards, I moved into adult education where I taught fine art, photography, digital imaging, animation and illustration. I have given lectures in armour and weapons as an historical interpreter for English Heritage, and various other History groups, specializing in the development of armour as well as the chivalric roles of the medieval Knight. I have a lifelong interest in historical warfare and its politics, which played a huge role in the evolution of military advancement.


Hivatkozások

Bennett, M. “Military Masculinity in England and Northern France c.1050-c. 1225.” 1999. In Masculinity in Medieval Europe , szerk. D. M. Hadley. New York: Addison Wesley Longman Limited.

Felix of Crowland. Life of Saint Guthlac . 1848. Ed. és ford. Charles Wycliffe Goodwin. London: John Russell Smith.

O'Keeffe, Katherine O’Brien. “Heroic values and Christian ethics.” 1991. In The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature , szerk. M. Godden and M. Lapidge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Recreating the glory of history

The historical period, when power and valor were the sole identity of a person, when blood was the staple food of weapons, and life had no meaning other than chivalry, can be easily recreated through our Armor Products. Mi, KHUKRIWALA HANDICRAFTS, are involved in manufacturing and exporting Armor Products that are an exact replica of the one used in historical periods, especially in the 5th to 15th century. Our range of Armor Products includes Armor Axes, Armor Daggers, Armor Helmets, Armor Kukri Knives, Armor Swords, Chest Armors, AE02 Crossbow, AX56 Long Spear etc. We make use of this research for designing and developing our Armor Products. Our dedicated craftsmen make intensive efforts to put every minute detail while crafting the Products so as to maintain originality in design. Consequently, our Handicraft Products are the perfect imitation of the articles used during ancient times. At present, we are serving the markets of USA and Europe and looking forward for more growth in terms of expansion in the international market. Read more.


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Hozzászólások:

  1. Randon

    Teljesen megosztom a véleményét. Ebben valami kiváló ötlet, támogatom.

  2. Hefeydd

    Elnézést kérek, de véleményem szerint tévedsz. be tudom bizonyítani. Írj nekem PM-ben.

  3. Roswald

    Szerintem nincs igazad. Írj PM-ben, megbeszéljük.

  4. Mordke

    Likewise, you are on the right

  5. Totilar

    Bomba



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